Zwingli (Zurich) - a priest, like Luther - convinced city council to advance reform (very similar to ML)
Calvin (Geneva) - most influential of the reformers. - convinced city council to turn Geneva into protestant city.
2 slogans of reformation: “sola fide” and “sola scriptura”
Sola scriptura - Christian faith stands on scripture alone
Zwingli: meaning of bible imparted to individual believer. saved by faith individually, everything is made clear through the individual reading of the bible
- Calvin: obv problem with this: it could be misunderstood. Makes a distinction objective clarity that comes with bible. Meaning stands clearly on its own, not always clear to individual.
Calls for official teachers to teach scriptures so people definitely understand the true meaning.
Sola fide - one is justified by faith & faith alone.
since we’re fully corrupted by sin, we can’t be saved through anything we can do. Must be saved through a gift from God (faith).
to say one is justified is to say that one has the right to share in the righteousness of Jesus himself.
- Gift of faith given: relationship b/w us and Christ - his righteousness is “imputed” to us. (Luther). We have the appearance of Faith b/c God, in his mercy, offered that to us.
- human beings are totally “depraved” - can’t do anything for their salvation. Some have been elected and given faith, some are predestined to go to hell.
- the grace of justification is irresistible;the will is powerless.
Sacraments: Baptism & Eucharist
Eucharist (Lord’s supper)
Luther: body & blood are truly present (consubstantiation)
John Calvin: Christ is spiritually present
Zwingli: “memorialism” (real presence implies idolatry) - only symbolically present.
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